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Construction of a lead-acid battery  

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The principle of the lead acid cell can be demonstrated with simple sheet lead plates for the two electrodes. However such a construction would only produce around an amp for roughly postcard sized plates, and it would not produce such a current for more than a few minutes. Gaston Planté realised that a plate construction was required that gave a much larger effective surface area. Planté's method of producing the plates has been largely unchanged and is still used in stationary applications.

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The Faure pasted-plate construction
is typical of automotive batteries. Each plate consists of a rectangular lead grid alloyed with antimony or calcium to improve the mechanical characteristics. The holes of the grid are filled with a mixture of red lead and 33% dilute sulfuric acid. (Different manufacturers have modified the mixture). The paste is pressed into the holes in the plates which are slightly tapered on both sides to assist in retention of the paste. This porous paste allows the acid to react with the lead inside the plate, increasing the surface area many fold. At this stage the positive and negative plates are similar, however expanders and additives vary their internal chemistry to assist in operation when in use. Once dry, the plates are then stacked together with suitable separators and inserted in the battery container. An odd number of plates is usually used, with one more negative plate than positive. Each alternate plate is connected together. After the acid has been added to the cell, the cell is given its first forming charge. The positive plates gradually turn the chocolate brown colour of lead dioxide, and the negative turn the slate gray of 'spongy' lead. Such a cell is ready to be used.

One of the problems with the plates in a lead-acid battery is that the plates change size as the battery charges and discharges, the plates increasing in size as the active material absorbs sulfate from the acid during discharge, and decreasing as they give up the sulfate during charging. This causes the plates to gradually shed the paste during their life. It is important that there is plenty of room underneath the plates to catch this shed material. If this material reaches the plates a shorted cell will occur.

Separators Separators are used between the positive and negative plates of a lead acid battery to prevent short circuit through physical contact, mostly through dendrites (‘treeing’), but also through shedding of the active material. Separators obstruct the flow of ions between the plates and increase the internal resistance of the cell.

Various materials have been used to make separators: wood rubber glass fiber mat cellulose sintered PVC microporous PVC/polyethylene. An effective separator must possess a number of mechanical properties; applicable considerations include permeability, porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area, mechanical design and strength, electrical resistance, ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the electrolyte. In service, the separator must have good resistance to acid and oxidation. The area of the separator must be a little larger than the area of the plates to prevent material shorting between the plates. The separators must remain stable over the operating temperature range of the battery.

In the battery service condition the following reaction can be shown :
PbO2 + 2H+ + SO4-2 = PbSO4 + H2O + ½ O2 PbO2 + (oxidizable separator material) + H2SO4 = PbSO4 + (oxidized material)

Wet cells designed for deep discharge are commonly used in golf carts and other battery electric vehicles, large backup power supplies for telephone and computer centers and off-grid household electric power systems. Gel batteries are used in back-up power supplies for alarm and smaller computer systems (particularly in uninterruptible power supplies) and for electric scooters, electrified bicycles and marine applications. Unlike wet cells, gel cells are sealed, with pressure relief valves in case of overcharging. In normal use they cannot spill liquid electrolyte. Absorbed glass mat (AGM) cells are also sealed and used in battery electric vehicles, as well as applications where there is a fairly high risk of the battery being laid on its side or over-turned, such as motorcycles. Historically, lead-acid batteries were used to supply the filament (heater) voltage (usually between 2 and 12 volts with 6 V being most common) in vacuum tube (valve) radio receivers in areas where no mains electricity supply was available. Such radios typically used two batteries: a lead-acid "A" battery for the filament voltage and a higher voltage (45 V–120 V) "dry" non-rechargeable "B" battery for the plate (anode) voltage. Lead-acid batteries are generally used in emergency lighting in case of power failure. They are also used in vehicles such as forklifts, in which the low energy-to-weight ratio may in fact be considered a benefit since the battery can be used as a counterweight. Large arrays of lead-acid cells are used as standby power sources for telecommunications facilities, generating stations, and computer data centers. Large lead-acid batteries are also used to power the electric motors in diesel-electric (conventional) submarines and are used on nuclear submarines as well.

Starting batteries
Lead acid batteries designed for starting automotive engines are not designed for deep discharge. They have a large number of thin plates designed for maximum surface area, and therefore maximum current output, but which can easily be damaged by deep discharge. Repeated deep discharges will result in capacity loss and ultimately in premature failure, as the electrodes disintegrate due to mechanical stresses that arise from cycling. A common misconception is that starting batteries should always be kept on float charge. In reality, this practice will encourage corrosion in the electrodes and result in premature failure. Starting batteries should be kept open-circuit but charged regularly (at least once every two weeks) to prevent sulfation. Deep cycle batteries Specially designed deep-cycle cells are much less susceptible to degradation due to cycling, and are required for applications where the batteries are regularly discharged, such as photovoltaic systems, electric vehicles (forklift, golf cart, electric cars and other) and uninterruptible power supplies. These batteries have thicker plates that can deliver less peak current, but can withstand frequent discharging.[1] Marine/Motorhome batteries, sometimes called "leisure batteries", are something of a compromise between the two, able to be discharged to a greater degree than automotive batteries, but less so than deep cycle batteries.

Fast and slow charge and discharge
When a battery is charged or discharged, this initially affects only the reacting chemicals, which are at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. With time, these chemicals at the interface, which we will call an "interface charge", spread by diffusion throughout the volume of the active material. If a battery has been completely discharged (e.g. the car lights were left on overnight) and next is given a fast charge for only a few minutes, then during the short charging time it develops only a charge near the interface. After a few hours this interface charge will spread to the volume of the electrode and electrolyte, leading to an interface charge so low that it may be insufficient to start the car.[2]
On the other hand, if the battery is given a slow charge, which takes longer, then the battery will become more fully charged, since then the interface charge has time to redistribute to the volume of the electrodes and electrolyte, and yet is replenished by the charger.
Similarly, if a battery is subject to a fast discharge (such as starting a car, which is a draw of some 200 amps) for a few minutes, it will appear to go dead. Most likely it has only lost its interface charge; after a wait of a few minutes it should appear to be operative. On the other hand, if a battery is subject to a slow discharge (such as leaving the car lights on, which is a draw of only 6 amps), then when the battery appears to be dead it likely has been completely discharged.

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